The appropriate precedence for development are conditions to realize positive progressive change in behavioral and attitudinal attributes in a community’s social and cultural norms. Such conditions are precisely perceived as rights.

Development has many definitions and different people have got different perceptions to it depending on their orientation or socialization. However, for our purposes, development is construed to mean a positive change socially, economically and politically for all men, women, youth and children. To positively articulate over these issues and institute positive change, there has to be certain basic dispositions favoring such change which are experienced at both local and global levels.


A look at the information contained in the responses from the field survey reveal that some of the issues impacted on education directly while others have a bearing looked at critically.

These were established to range from culture, traditional beliefs and practices to general infrastructural development in the project area as factors having an impact on education generally and that of the girl specifically:


1.      Culture, traditional practices and beliefs identified the following key points:

  • Socialization of Women and Girls making them believe they are second to Men
  • Selective education in favor of boys and girls seen as a source of  wealth through dowry payment
  • Role sharing in domestic and subsistence work
  • Cosmopolitan influence of Migori Town on the areas so near and influence of cultures and education
  • Polygamy and the belief and acceptance of traditional wife inheritance
  • Effect of certain traditional beliefs and regions and their influence on girls education

2.      General attitudes and opinion towards education

The survey focusing on the zone where Got Kachola is situated revealed a varied response on attitudes why education should be taken seriously, points to note that came up included:

·        Parents in some parts of the area were found to discourage their girl children from pursuing education

·        Girl students develop complacency and remain comfortable because they will eventually be married

·        Education may no longer be of value considering the prevailing conditions of joblessness of the educated

·        Male superiority and female inferiority has been accepted with impunity

·        Selective education has resulted favoring boys

·        Teachers in these rural set ups find it difficult to convince girls to take education seriously for lack of role models.

3.      Economic status and effects on education:

Despite the potential agricultural production and its proximity to the Tanzanian border, that is seen as good set up for economic growth, this is not the case due to:

a)     Underutilization of available resources

b)     Poverty furthering selective education

c)      Child labor resulting from  efforts to compensate for the merger income realized in the family circles

d)     Poor facilities in schools, inability of parents to fend for their children’s needs

e)     Early marriages

4.      Gender Equity and Equal opportunities:


              i.      Inequality in education has led to child labor

            ii.      Selective education in favor of boys

          iii.      Limitation of female role models in the area

           iv.      Inequality in education attaches people to traditional practices impacting negatively mostly to women

             v.      Practice of polygamy and the resultant effects

           vi.      Gender equity in terms of admission, retention and completion looking at records.

5.      Schools and Community Linkages

The survey intended to establish the level and influence of school and community linkage including:

  • The level of linkage and who is more committed
  • Networking between school and how this influence information sharing
  • The presence of any professional associations that would help in developing the school
  • Community members concern in education and development of school
  • Ownership and a sense of responsibility of the communities towards seeing that the school is develop and maintained well

6.      Population of school – enrolment/admission, retention and completion, performance, gender relations and the implications:

  • Accessibility of the school
  • Isolation of the school and the possible result of lack of proper information flow
  • How inaccessibility of the school influence teacher’s commitment to their work and efforts of the education office
  • The effect of distance vis-à-vis level of enrolment
  • Poor teaching and learning facilities in school leading to ineffective work that eventually reflects on the level of performance
  • Its influence on equality in education and the resultant effects
  • The influence of distance on the enrolment age of pupils 
  • Cases of truancy and causes of the same – such as fatigue, distance, hunger etc.
  • Effective time use adjustments as a necessity in the school.

7.      Economic and social engagements and their bearing on education:

  • Farming activities and other economic interventions including trade
  • Absenteeism of pupils from the school
  • The negative effects of exposure to economic activities to the pupils





From the foregoing discussion and analysis of issues, it is evident that there are several factors having a bearing on education generally and impacting more on girls’ education specifically. This sub-section gives a foreground of suggested possible approaches that could be instituted in an attempt to alter the situation including:

1.      The society can be sensitized and conscientized to erase the general negative attitude and a show of concern towards girls education to take education importantly and accept their roles towards the same

2.      Parents and students should be made to realize that the ultimate purpose of education is not employment but rather a holistic development of an individual

3.      Efforts need to be put by all stakeholders to create and encourage a linkage with the schools and sense of ownership and responsibility to the schools so that development may be realized

4.      In an effort to address the question of school dropout, head teachers and school parent’s teachers association (administration) need to establish and know well background information of parents and pupils in view of educing cases of dropout.

5.      To address the question of poverty and financial resource engagement in the school

6.      Family planning education so that families could end up with manageable children and encourage socio-economic empowerment for mothers to support their children.

7.      The community, teachers and pupils should be conscientized to be able to appreciate the concept of gender equity, gender parity in education and leadership positions.

8.      The community to make elaborate efforts through the appropriate channels f communication to address social issues and evils that exist and impact negatively on education.

9.      Teachers to be encouraged to view their profession as a vocation, demanding et needs to be performed well through commitment and taking learning from a holistic point of view.

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